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Finishing Touches

Shopping for the right home is always a major undertaking.  You want the right neighborhood, a place close enough to work to get there quickly, and far enough that you can’t be pulled in at a whim.  You want a place that is safe for your kids but gives them all kinds of places to explore and play in the yard.

Getting It Just Right

Over the years you’ve improved the house:  invested in landscaping to make your yard a bright spot of color in the neighborhood, and all the neighbors are trying to catch up with you; you replaced your vinyl siding with wood siding–ipe siding, of course–and you put a beautiful ipe wood deck in the back.  

And you’ve done all this because you’re proud of your home, and want to have everything look just right. And it’s those finishing touches that make the difference.  

The Concept

In the clothing business, they call it “the Concept,” putting the proper finishing touches on an outfit.  When you buy a new car, you don’t want old tires on it, right? Or when you buy that brand-new suit, you don’t want to wear a worn, tattered, threadbare shirt and tie, but want something that makes your investment looking its best.  

And that’s what an ipe wood fence is doing for your house and your yard after all the other work and effort you’ve put into it,  you want everything to be perfect. You want the concept or look, to be complete.

Adding ipe fencing completes the concept,  tying it all together.

Also, by making the fence from Brazilian walnut–another name for ipe wood–you unify everything tying it all together, finishing it all and completing the concept.

The Best-Looking Place in the Neighborhood

Whether or not you’ve used ipe decking or ipe siding for the rest of your home improvements, an ipe fence just gives it that extra little touch of class, that says the people who live here care about their home and the neighborhood.  

They care enough to make sure their house has a beautiful fence that will last for years and years and not fall apart.  They care enough to install one of the most beautiful hardwoods on the planet. Ironwood, aka ipe wood, is a wood that will last forever.   Some studies say that it will last up 75 years.

You can rest easy knowing that your investment in your home will help increase the home’s value, and has made it the best-looking home in the whole neighborhood.

Ipe Woods USA wants to be your partner in this, working alongside from start to finish on whatever project you’re working on to improve your castle.  Visit us at ipewoods.com. We want to help you make your home the best-looking place in the neighborhood.

Avoiding Unpleasant and Unnecessary Surprises

Turning your home into your castle is a major undertaking.  And you want to do it right and avoid any unnecessary costs and surprises.  The old saying goes “Well begun is half done.” (It’s attributed to Aristotle, but I suspect he didn’t have the rhyming thing going on.)  So when you decide to add a deck to your house, you want it done right, without any worries.  

Counting the Costs

The two most important things about your project are what to use, and how much will it cost?  To restate the obvious, one affects the other.

Given that you have invested much in your house, we can safely assume that you’re not going with vinyl decking options.  You already know that wood decking looks better and increases your home’s value more.

And of course, you want to go with the king of woods–ipe wood, aka Brazilian walnut or ironwood.  

While that may cost more on the front end, on the back end, you’re going to be saving time in longevity and maintenance costs.

Breaking it Down

The average national costs of building a back deck are about $7,100, with the range running from $1,800 on the low end, and $17,000 at the top end. The cost per square foot for ipe decking averages about  $7.50 per square foot but can go as high as $10 per square foot. Remember to add your labor costs, which start at $20 per hour, and can run as high as $35 per hour. Always calculate the highest cost, this avoids unpleasant surprises.  

Start with the basics:  How big is your deck going to be?  The average size of a back deck is 200 square feet to 500 square feet, although some can be much larger.  

When you’re doing your calculations, remember to include support materials as well, such as beams and joists.  

Don’t Forget the Extras

So far, we’ve talked about your basic costs.  But you have to be careful to remember the extras when calculating your costs.  

What extras?

You might not think of them as such, but things like benches, pergolas, planter boxes all count as extras.  Don’t forget to add those in as you’re calculating your total cost.

The Bottom Line

You may be having a heart palpitations as you start looking at your costs, but you’re only looking at the subtotal, not the total.  

Yes, using ipe wood to make your deck will cost you a little more on the front end.  But when you look at the lower maintenance costs, and what ironwood adds to the resale value of your house, you come out ahead.  Remember this is an investment, and the best investments pay out in the long haul.

Ipe Woods America–ipewood.com–the industry’s low-cost leader is here to help you build the most beautiful ipe deck possible.  Our wood is the best, and our customer service is second to none. We consider it a privilege to be your partner in making your home your castle.

WHY YOU NEED AN IPE WOOD FENCE

You live in a nice upper-middle-class neighborhood; maybe even a couple steps above upper middle class.  Your house looks great and you work to keep it that way. You worked hard to get here and take pride in what you’ve achieved.

TROUBLE-MAKERS

And yet there are those pesky neighbor kids who have taken a liking to your fence.  Or maybe it’s a dislike. They keep doing this.  And it’s costing you money and a lot of hassle. Besides the repairs, there’s also the cost of getting that security camera to catch the little rats at what they’ve been up. Plus all the hassle and time to call the cops once you’ve nailed the little rats.  

There is an easy way to fix it.

AS TOUGH AS IT IT IS BEAUTIFUL

The one problem with most fences and fencing materials is they just don’t stand up to a lot of wear and tear, and/or abuse, such as neighborhood kids launching regular attacks, heat, cold, snow, rain, and crawly critters who munch on wood.  

Vinyl looks good and tough and it supposedly low maintenance, but it’s all looks and no show. As you saw in that video, it can be taken out by a young kid who gets a good running start.  

What you need is a Ipe fence that will shrug off all those threats like Arnold swatting a bothersome fly.

The answer is a fence built of ipe–Brazilian walnut–wood, from Ipe Woods USA.  Another name for ipe is ironwood.  And it didn’t earn that name just for its good looks.  

A fence made from ipe will stand the test of time as well as attacks from critters that would like for it dinner because of its dense nature.  The US Naval Research lab has tested the durability of ipe and says that it can last for up to 75 years. Any kids who try knocking down that fence are going to need orthopedic attention.  

But even more so is how good looking it is. Freshly installed, ipe wood fencing is a light to medium brown.  It’s a handsome color and stands out beautifully. With its natural density and strength, ipe will stand the worst Mother Nature has to throw at any all natural wood fences.  

It’s both tough and beautiful.  Can you ask for more?

Low Maintenance

Your other big benefit with your ipe wood fence is its low maintenance nature.  

Most contractors recommend not staining the wood, and letting it fade to the beautiful silver-grey patina–like teak– that aged ipe takes on.  However, if you want to stain it, make sure you have a stain that is formulated for ipe–not every wood stain on the market will work for ipe wood.  And you only need to do it annually.

A fence that’s beautiful, tough, and low maintenance, if this were horse racing you’d that’s the triple crown.

What are you waiting for?  

 

Classic and Classy Wood Always Wins

Your Biggest Investment

It’s a given–your house will be the largest personal investment you’ll make. Just signing the mortgage makes people’s heart rates go up drastically.  

More than the financial investment in the house is the emotional one you’ll have with it.  Your kids will be born and grow there–they’ll play in the backyard and front yard. They’ll climb trees, play tag, Red Rover, Red Rover, etc.  And yes, you can admit it, you’ll become emotionally attached to your home as well. Memories will grow there.

With all that–you want your home to look as good as possible for as long as possible. Which means, what kind of siding do I use?  Vinyl or wood?

Classic is the Best

Classic always wins–go with wood.  Wood is that great look which shows up in all amazing home styles and designs–classic or modern.  Face it, wood always looks best. But you already know that with your level of style and sophistication.

After you’ve decided on the obvious, the next question is what kind of wood to use?  

Cedar and redwood have been around for ages. But they also require a boatload of maintenance, restaining annually and such.  Almost more work than it’s worth. Which is one of the reasons people go for vinyl siding. And we all know how that looks after a while.

Ipe wood, on the other hand, gives you the best of everything you could hope for.  

This is one of the reasons why Ipewoods.com specializes in great exotic woods, to help protect the investment you’ve made in your house.

Keeping Things Easy

Ask yourself one question:  How easy will this be for me?

As easy as pie.  Because it’s essentially maintenance free.

The other traditional woods used for siding such as pine, spruce, fir, cedar or redwood, require a lot of annual maintenance. You’ve got to restain that siding every year.  Or, if you’re not going to go out and climb all over creation doing it, you’ll be paying someone else to do it.

No matter how you look at it, it’s going to cost you money and maybe a whole lot of time and effort.  With ipe siding, that’s a thing of the past.

General contractor Matt Risinger, suggests that you don’t need to worry about staining your ipe wood, aka ironwood, siding.  

Ipe’s dense nature makes it difficult to stain.  The wood doesn’t take the stain easily. As Ironwood ages, however, it fades to a beautiful silver grey color.  Ensuring that your house will always look fantastic, no matter how old it is. It’s not every day that you can have your home continue looking amazing years after you’ve put up the wood.  But ipe wood siding does just that.

Just like you, the ipe siding on your house will age gracefully, and with style.  Your house will stay as beautiful as the memories that grew up there.

Ipe Does It – The Easiest Wood to Maintain

One of the things our customers here at Ipe Woods USA like so much about ipe wood, is how easy it is to care for. Deck owners rave about how it easy it is to care for a deck made of ipe. You can stain it annually if you want, but most contractors say don’t worry about that. Keeping it clean is practically a matter of a broom and a hose. You may have paid a little more than what you usually pay, but stop and think about what you got for that little bit of extra money.

Less Work
One of the biggest hassles of using an all natural wood for anything–decking, siding, fencing–is you have to restain it every year, or it starts looking bad. Because of its dense nature, ipe wood doesn’t take a stain easily, and when staining you have to be careful not to put too much on, or it makes a mess. That’s not a problem though. Brazilian walnut, as ipe is also known, takes on a beautiful silver grey tone as it ages, and is just as gorgeous aged as it is new. So that means less work and expense for you, and still have a great looking house. Ipe wood siding saves you all that hassle.

No Creepy-crawlies
Another disadvantage to other typical all natural wood siding products is insects love eating wood, and so you have to be careful about that as well.

Once again, ironwood comes to the rescue!
Because of its dense nature (8Xs harder than California redwood), termites, and other nasty insects that like making dinner out of deck and siding, stay away from ipe. One less thing for you to worry about.

Like Water off a Duck’s Back
The same dense nature that repels wood munching critters also makes ipe siding great for keeping the house dry. Ipe is such a dense wood, that it actually sinks. That means the water just slides right off and doesn’t work its way inside. It keeps your house nice and dry. Don’t believe me? Check out what Matt Risinger has to say about this.

Because the water just slips away, the wood stays dry, which means that molds and fungi don’t attach themselves easily to your ipe wood siding.

A Flame-thrower maybe?
There is no all-natural substance that is completely fireproof, but ipe wood gets really close. Studies have given it a Class A fire resistance rating–the highest possible. Having ipe siding on your house is great fire protection. Unless you live in a neighborhood like what you see in the Lethal Weapon movies, where homes are shot up and blown up almost daily, chances are with ipe wood siding, it will take a lot longer than usual for the siding on your house to catch fire.

Ipe Woods USA carries a wide selection of ipe boards for all kinds of purposes so that you can rest easy once you’ve got your house covered in ipe.

No More Slip Sliding Away

It was a busy fall for you, and you didn’t get the chance to fix up your dock at the end of the season last year. And now boating and swimming season is just around the corner.

What to do?
Have no fear, there is no reason to worry. There is still time to take care of things. And to make things even better, we here at Ipewoods.com have come to the rescue.

A Natural Solution

One of the problems with all natural wood docks is that in many ways, wood and water don’t get along. Slowly, but surely over time, water works its way into the wood and warps and cracks and makes the finish peel. Once that all happens, then you’ve got to replace the boards.
However, there is an all-natural solution. One that will save you a lot of work and money.
You’ve probably been using cedar or redwood for your dock up to now. Those are great woods. Many market them as being resistant to the ravages of water, but the fact is unless you’re using boards made from heartwood, they’re not really that resistant.
Ipe wood, however, is naturally resistant to water, which means that you’re not going to come to the end of each season looking at warped and cracked boards in your dock.

Low Maintenance

The natural water-resistance to water means you don’t have to worry about replacement and repair of your dock at the end of every boating season. While there may be some yearly maintenance–you never know what’s going to happen–generally, it’s much less than you’ll experience with docks made from other woods. Ipe wood didn’t earn its nickname of ironwood for nothing. This beautiful Brazilian hardwood can last up to 40 years. That’s practically two generations.
With woods such as cedar and redwood, you have to restain it regularly. In fact, some say to do it each year. When you toss in replacing and repairing the boards, that’s a lot of work.
Your ipe boards are very dense and don’t take a stain easily. (Yes, it can be stained, if you insist.) As a matter of fact, there are only one or two oils that can really do stain, and even then you need to be very careful because too much and it looks bad.
Aged ipe turns a lovely silver-grey color, similar to teak wood.
These two features help to keep your maintenance time and costs low.

No More Slip-sliding away

One of the other features of the Brazilian walnut is that unlike other woods, it has a more natural grip, so when it’s wet, you’re not sliding into the lake.
However, Ipewoods.com does carry groove ipe dock boards, for draining away water on the surface of the dock, if you prefer that option.
Keeping it Looking Good
For keeping your dock looking and safer over an extended period of time–up to 40 years, remember?–nothing beats using ipe for your boards and joists in your dock. And with the reduced maintenance and overall cost, you just can’t lose using ipe boards for your dock.

The Caitlan Wallace Memorial Scholarship

Caitlan Wallace had just turned 18, when her life was suddenly taken in a fatal car accident on September 29th, 2015. Caitlan was an intelligent, witty, spirited young woman who looked forward to starting adult life and education.

My name is Steven Rossi of Ipe Woods USA. Caitlan was not only my niece, she was also an inspiration to me and our family. Caitlan’s brilliance and charm was the light of our lives. She will not have the opportunity to fulfill her dream of going to College. In Memory of Caitlan Wallace, Ipe Woods USA is offering a College Scholarship in the amount of $1000.

This initial scholarship of $1000 will be offered to someone who needs financial assistance to fulfill their college dreams. Ipe Woods USA is accepting applications with an attached essay to award the first Caitlan Wallace Memorial Scholarship.

Essay requirements for the Caitlan Wallace Memorial Scholarship:
The advent of safe phones, texting, and social media has led to an increase of traffic accidents due to distracted driving. In a two-page essay please discuss the necessity for safe driving and the perils of distracted driving. We ask that this essay be a concisely written creative essay that can be shared in Memory of Caitlan Wallace and her tragic automobile death.

Essay Format:
Use the basic principles of an opinion essay:
An Introduction that previews the 3 essential points of the essay
A Body that discusses each point of your argument for safe driving
A Conclusion that summarizes your points
The essays will be judged on academic excellence, writing style and the concise conveyance of the points you make highlighting the need for safe driving.

The work must be original and unpublished. The writing will be checked for plagiarism and writings that were previously published on any kind of media outlets, including personal blogs, Facebook pages and similar platforms, will not be considered applicable.
The essay must include at least three official and authentic sources to corroborate your argumentation. Once you submit your essay, you give ipewoods.com permission to use it for commercial purposes.

Writing Guidelines:
The essay must follow a logical reasoning as your writing must be based on factual and logical arguments to prove your point.
The writing style is free, as creativity is also evaluated. We welcome and cherish conceptual writing, provided that you follow the aforementioned guidelines of argumentation and remain objective.
The writing must explain a particular point of view and prove it reasonable and logical based on the official sources you have to include on your writing.

The sources that refer to objective statements must be cited as quotations, whilst official data sources, like statistical data, can be simply referred at the end of the writing by an index markers system of your preference, i.e., “1, 2, 3, 4….”; “*, **, ***”.

Both types of sources, either quoted statements or data sources must be referred at the end of the essay in a separate section that must be titled “References”. You must include links for the official websites where the information can be accessed or, in the case of books and other printed media, you must include an extended reference with the number of the page and paragraph where the data or statement can be found, as well as the year of the publication, and the name of the book and the author.

Once again, note that the essay must follow a logical reasoning. Religious books or any other kind of abstract, empiric or non-scientific sources are not valid to corroborate your argumentation and you will be eliminated from the contest. Your essay must be saved as a “.doc” file.

Application Guidelines:
Send us your essay by email to [email protected] with the subject “Caitlan Wallace Memorial Scholarship – YOUR NAME”

In the body of the email include the following information:

  • Your full name
  • Telephone number
  • Full name of the school/university you are attending
  • Area of Study
  • You also must submit an official document that proves you are currently studying and associated with your school/university, including an official certification by the institution, as a signature or an official stamp. This document must be scanned with a good resolution and attached to your email.

Review and Winner’s Announcement:
The applied works will be reviewed under the following criteria:

  • Evaluation of the proper grammar usage
  • Evaluation of writing skills
  • Evaluation of creativity
  • Evaluation of argumentation and sources
  • The evaluations will get a grade of excellence based on the performance on the aforementioned criteria. The total highest grade will naturally be selected as the winner
  • The announcement of the winner is made on November 15th. The winner must claim her prize within one month or the second highest grade of the selection will be awarded as the winner.
    To claim the prize, we will contact you and your school/university to prove your association and subsequently, the prize will be sent via check .

Deadline The final date for submission is November 1st 2018, and we will choose the winner by November 15th and the check will be mailed out by November 20th 2018.

Steven Rossi
Ipe Woods USA
In Loving Memory of Caitlan Wallace

Ipe Woods USA Awarded Best Of Houzz 2018

Over 40 Million Monthly Users Nominated Best Home Building, Remodeling and Design Professionals in North America and Around the World and Ipe Woods USA won.

HOUSTON, TX, UNITED STATES, January 18, 2018 – Ipe Woods USA has won “Best Of Customer Service” on Houzz®, the leading platform for home remodeling and design. The new ipe decking supplier was chosen by the more than 40 million monthly unique users that comprise the Houzz community from among more than one million active home building, remodeling and design industry professionals.

The Best Of Houzz is awarded annually in three categories: Design, Customer Service and Photography. Design award winners’ work was the most popular among the more than 40 million monthly users on Houzz. Customer Service honors are based on several factors, including the number and quality of client reviews a professional received in 2017. Architecture and interior design photographers whose images were most popular are recognized with the Photography award. A “Best Of Houzz 2018” badge will appear on winners’ profiles, as a sign of their commitment to excellence. These badges help homeowners identify popular and top-rated home professionals in every metro area on Houzz.

“We work every day to ensure our customer service is the best in our industry and we are honored to be recognized for the hard work,” said Steven Rossi, President of Ipe Woods USA.

“The Houzz community selected a phenomenal group of Best of Houzz 2018 award winners, so this year’s recipients should be very proud,” said Liza Hausman, Vice President of Industry Marketing at Houzz. “Best of Houzz winners represent some of the most talented and customer-focused professionals in our industry, and we are extremely pleased to give them both this recognition and a platform on which to showcase their expertise.”

Follow Ipe Woods USA on Houzz.

About Ipe Woods USA
Ipe Woods USA is one of the leading suppliers of Ipe wood for decking, siding, flooring, and fencing in the United States. Supplying from coast to coast and across the world and delivering straight to job sites, also offering over 200 locations for pick-up upon request. Bringing the lowest prices on Ipe and the highest quality of Ipe direct to customers. Ipe wood is milled differently, installed differently and worked with differently than most other woods. Working with Ipe Woods USA ensures you have experts to consult with during your project(s). For more information visit their website at ipewoods.com.

About Houzz
Houzz is the leading platform for home remodeling and design, providing people with everything they need to improve their homes from start to finish – online or from a mobile device. From decorating a small room to building a custom home and everything in between, Houzz connects millions of homeowners, home design enthusiasts and home improvement professionals across the country and around the world. With the largest residential design database in the world and a vibrant community empowered by technology, Houzz is the easiest way for people to find inspiration, get advice, buy products and hire the professionals they need to help turn their ideas into reality. Headquartered in Palo Alto, CA, Houzz also has international offices in London, Berlin, Sydney, Moscow, Tel Aviv and Tokyo. Houzz and the Houzz logo are registered trademarks of Houzz Inc. worldwide. For more information, visit houzz.com.

Dale Johnson
Ipe Woods USA
844-674-4455
email us here

General Types of Decking Information

One of the essential additions to a home for entertainment or recreational purposes is the decking space. This is why a lot of homeowners around the world are constructing this appendage so that they can entertain their families, friends or neighbors. But choosing the material to use for your decking can be very intimidating. The following is a compiled summary of the most commonly used materials used today for decking.

These are some common alternatives to Ipe decking. Of course, the closest one is 1/3 the life of Ipe. We highly recommend you pay a little extra and get an Ipe deck.

Cedar decking
The price point of cedar decking falls between composite and treated wood. Cedar is visually appealing and is resistant to rot – to some extent – and purely resistant to insects. Cedar also has beautiful coloring. The best grade of cedar which is used for decking is commonly referred to as ‘Select’ tight knot cedar as it has minimal defects. The only disadvantage to using cedar for your decking needs is that it is a soft wood and likely to show wear if you happen to drag heavy furniture across it. You will also be required to reseal and stain your cedar deck annually to retain its beauty. This, however, gives no guarantee that the natural color of the cedar decking will not fade away. The natural lifespan of a cedar deck is between fifteen to twenty years on average
Treated decking
One of the things you should keep in mind when looking for the appropriate material for your decking needs is maintenance. Although treated decking is cost-effective, you need to factor in the costs of sealing, staining or painting each year. You will also be required to wait – which may be from two weeks to six months, depending on the environment as well as the type of pressure-treated process it has undergone – to paint, stain or seal a treated deck after each new build. Power washing your treated decking at least once a year is required before you re-stain it. The average lifespan of treated decking ranges between ten to fifteen years, and this depends on your environment and maintenance.

PVC decking
The use of this sturdy, synthetic material for decking has grown in popularity over the past few years. It is newer than composites and much more expensive compared to other types of decking. Composite brands such as Wolf and Fiberon also have PVC line, too. Not only is it durable, but PVC is also capped on three sides, similar to composites. It has a better tendency than composites to expand or contract according to changes to the weather. PVC decking is commonly used in water applications and has been found to be slip resistant, although this property varies from one brand to the other. PVC decking is also apparently resistant to rot and come with fade and stain warranties.
Composite decking
Composite decking is revered for its durability and strength. It is one of the most popular decking materials and made from materials that have undergone recycling such as sawdust, plastic bags, etc. Some composite decking is capped on three sides – sometimes, on four sides though this depends on the brand you select or go with. One cap prevents moisture and water from penetrating while another prevents staining and fading of colors. This is the most significant complaints lodged by users against composites. Composite decking also comes with embossed patterns that make it resemble natural wood grain as well as for aesthetic purposes and to minimize slippage. Some composite decking comes with variations in color while others come with solid colors to imitate natural wood. Almost all composite deck brands offer rot, splintering, fade, stain, and decay warranties which can cover as much as 25 years, depending on the brand.

Choosing Wood For Decking

One of the hardest choices you will ever make as a homeowner has to do with selecting the type of wood to use for your decking. The right board or type of wood is not just about the budget, strength or even looks but an excellent combination of these three attributes!

You may also be considering giving your old decking boards a face-lift suing new decking material, or maybe you just want to add a new deck to your house. But whatever the reason is, you need to be careful about the type of boards to purchase. The decking market has experienced a recent boom and with so many decking materials shoved literally into your face which is capable of confusing you the more.

Therefore, here are some of the things to consider when choosing wood for decking:

What do you intend to use your deck for? – The answers to this question will help you in making up your mind about the type of wood you should choose for your decking. Different decking boards have different holding power, especially under hard use. If your deck is used for entertaining your friends or neighbors and treating them to nightly barbecues, then the wood to be used for decking must be very sturdy. If, however, your decking area will be less frequented, then a less hardy and pressure-treated wood is the best choice.

Available materials – This is another thing you need to consider when choosing wood for your decking. You need to assess the decking materials that you can quickly acquire. Do you have Ipe wood close by? Ipe is a very durable lumber that when used for decking, lasts very long and is resistant to insects, fire, and mildew.

Composite decking is made using wood furniture quality which is mixed with a polymer to produce a high-density and sturdy product. It does not expand or shrink according to the weather, and you will never notice anything like splitting or warping on composite deck boards.

What is your budget? – This is another factor you need to consider. You may come across different price levels which cover different types of woods ranging from wood composite boards, pressure-treated wood, capped wood composite boards, etc. Ipe wood, for instance, is a bit pricey, but its durability, strength, and its resistance to fire, insects, and mildew makes the price to be worth it.

Different materials call for varying levels of upkeep and maintenance. Therefore, it is highly crucial that you ascertain your price range while considering what you’d like to use your decking for. Nevertheless, do not go for cheap wood up front as you may have to bear with high maintenance costs later on in life.

Finally, it is expected of you to be environmentally responsible when it comes to using wood. When you go for treated wood – which requires less energy to produce compared to other building products – you will be assured of using lumber which is durable and environmentally friendly. This implies that your decking will last for a long time, thereby reducing the demand on forests for lumber.